From taking up his first diplomatic post in the Embassy of the Kingdom of Yugoslavia at the Holy See on March 7, 1920, until the end of his diplomatic career, on April 5, 1941, when he was Minister Plenipotentiary and Ambassador Extraordinary of the Yugoslav Royal Embassy in Berlin, Ivo Andrić served in eight European countries and ten cities.
The Vatican (Rome), Bucharest, Trieste, Graz, Marseille, Paris, Madrid, Brussels, Geneva and Berlin were the centers where he honed his diplomatic skills and gained a reputation in the world of diplomacy, which is why the French newspaper Imanite, when Andrić became Assistant Minister of Foreign Affairs in 1937, stating: “45 years old, he is a man of rare intelligence who has made a brilliant diplomatic career and who, at the same time, distinguished himself as a writer.”
At the time when he became a high state official, Milan Stojadinović was at the same time the Prime Minister and the Minister of Foreign Affairs.
For two years, from March 1931 to March 1933, IVO Andrić also served in Geneva, as a member of the Permanent Delegation of the Kingdom of Yugoslavia to the League of Nations, at the headquarters of this world organization founded to preserve world peace, collective security, political independence and equality. , but it turned out that the powers of the League of Nations were weak and that they could not oppose the course of events that would lead to the Second World War.
“Mussolini, Hitler and Stalin are dictators, their systems are totalitarian and aggressive, Western democrats are hesitant and indecisive,” Andric wrote in those years, confirming that he sees precisely and accurately the deep layers of historical movement and the role of individual figures in history.
AVOID CONFLICT WITH ITALY
In the OFFICIAL reminder, Aide memoire on the Albanian issue, for internal use in the Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Ivo Andrić, among other things, writes: “In assessing this whole issue (the division of Albania), it should be borne in mind “There was also a covert conflict with Italy. We should also avoid Italy occupying the whole of Arbania and endangering us in very sensitive places, towards the Bay of Kotor and Kosovo,” Andric wrote.
Circumstances wanted that, after the fall of Stojadinović’s government, Andrić, on April 10, 1939, took his last diplomatic post in Berlin, just a few months before Hitler started the machinery of the Second World War. It was the most sensitive and delicate period of his diplomatic career, especially the difficult mission, the years that Andrić himself said were the most painful in his life.
THREE months before his departure for the German capital, at the end of January, Count Galeaceo Cano, Mussolini’s Minister of Foreign Affairs, came to visit the Kingdom of Yugoslavia. In the meetings with Milan Stojadinović, official and unofficial talks were held in Belgrade and Belje. There were many questions on the wallpaper about the relationship between the two countries …
In Belje, Stojadinović and Ćano will lead secret negotiations, and Mussolini’s son-in-law offered the division of Albania (Prince Pavle would later reject that proposal). A party with specially selected ladies was prepared for the high Italian guest. The curiosity of this lumperajka is that the corpulent Stojadinović, in the mood of good mood, climbed on the table, with the intention of holding a toast. However, the table broke down and the president of the royal government found himself on the floor covered with food from the table.
In order to better prepare for negotiations with his Italian colleague, Stojadinović asked for an official reminder to be prepared for him on the Albanian issue for internal use in the Ministry. The first page of the reminder reads: “Report by Mr. Andrić on January 30, 1939.” (This document is kept in the Archives of Serbia – “Milan Stojadinović Fund”, box 37)
The TEXT of this official note was first published in the “Journal of Contemporary History”, 1977, IX, no. 2 (24), p. 77-89. Croatian historian Bogdan Krizman was the editor of this edition and the document, together with Krizman’s comments, was printed under the title “Study of Dr. Ivo Andrić on Albania from 1939”.
Andrić’s note had its second publication in 1988, in “Sveske”, Ivo Andrić Endowment no. 5. In the conclusion of this document, which deals with the chronology of historical circumstances and relations, and has 20,734 characters, Andrić writes:
“Taking Shkodra could be of great moral and economic importance in that case. It would enable us to perform large hydrotechnical works and obtain fertile land for Montenegro’s food. Northern Arbania within Yugoslavia would allow the creation of new transport connections between Northern and Southern Serbia and the Adriatic. .
The division of Arbanija would eliminate the attractive center for the Arbanasi minority in Kosovo, which, in the new situation, would be easier to assimilate. We would eventually get another 200,000 – 300,000 Arbanasi, but they are mostly Catholics whose relationship with Arbanasi Muslims has never been good. The issue of the emigration of Arbanasi Muslims to Turkey would also be raised under new circumstances, as there would be no stronger action to prevent it. “
AT THE SAME TIME, with the publication of Andrić’s writings in their entirety, “Sveske” brought about the controversy that followed Krizman’s article. The then president of the Board of Directors of the “Ivo Andrić” Endowment, Rodoljub Čolaković, protested against the editor-in-chief of the “Journal of Contemporary History”, Dr. Ivan Jelić. The Čolaković-Jelić-Krizman controversy is kept in the endowment of Ivo Andrić (Documentation Center, inv. No. 1156 – 1159).
Čolaković complains to Krizman about the sentence: “Andrić was not only successful in the field of literature, but he also recorded successes in his diplomatic career”! Krizman also says that “Andrić remained in the position of extraordinary envoy and plenipotentiary minister until the German attack on Yugoslavia … in order to return to occupied Belgrade where he – retired and retired, but very active as a writer – was liberated.” Colaković admits that Andrić retired in November 1941, but emphasizes that Andrić never received a pension because he refused to accept it. Colaković also reminds Krizman that Andrić rejected any possibility of publishing his works during the occupation.
TO KRIZMAN’s claim that “the stories about Andrić that he resigned as a deputy in Berlin on March 25, 1941 in protest of the signing and formal accession to the Triple Alliance are incorrect”, Čolaković replies: “As early as March 20, 1941, Andrić sent a letter to Cincar-Markovic: “Today, primarily official and then personal, numerous and imperative reasons order me to ask to be relieved of this duty …”.
Colaković believes that this is a resignation and an attitude against joining the pact.
Dr. Bogdan Krizman proves the exact opposite and answers: “… Do you suppose, Comrade Colaković, that Stojadinović would have promoted him to his closest associate if Andrić had not – at least in the main lines – agreed with his (or Prince Pavle’s) general foreign policy line” ?
One of the consequences of the controversy was the request of Albanians from Kosovo and Metohija to delete Andrić’s works from the curriculum for teaching literature. A similar request was made by supporters of Alija Izetbegović during the civil war in Bosnia and Herzegovina. They were bothered by Andrić’s attitude, in his literary work, towards Muslims …
Tomorrow: A writer in a love triangle
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